# All Questions

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1answer
8 views

### Beta: Cumulative vs. Simple Returns

How would calculating Beta using cumulative returns differ from Beta calculated with monthly returns? Is one more appropriate to use than another? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta_(finance)
0answers
5 views

### Black-Derman-Toy model AND European-type bond call option

In a Black-Derman-Toy model in which Ω ={ ω1, ω2, ω3, ω4 }, the risk-neutral probability for each state ωi, i = 1, 2, 3, 4 is 1/4 . The spot rates in BDT model are given as follows. ω r1 r2 ...
0answers
10 views

### Consider a single period security market with two assets. Assume the current prices are [on hold]

Consider a single period security market with two assets. Assume the current prices are s1(0)=1,s2(0)=2 There are two states at time one and the payoff matrix is A= ( \begin{matrix}1 & 1\\ 1 ...
0answers
14 views

### Cointegration between prices and dividends. How do I get the following expression?

Actually, I have two questions: 1. Let us assume that expected returns are constant. Then, we have the following expression for the prices should be determined, provided that the operators are ...
0answers
17 views

### Which technique determines if var x1 leads var y? Assuming var x1 may need to be transformed

Suppose I want to predict future changes in variable y (stock price over time). I notice that variable x1, inverted and delayed three months, tends to lead y. Which technique can I use to find other ...
0answers
7 views

### how to model NGARCH using 5min frequency data?

NGARCH model using 5-min High-frequency data in R I wanted to analyze some 5 minute frequency data of stock market. My teacher asked me to use NGARCH to model, but I didn't know how to program.Here ...
0answers
19 views

### Monte Carlo (resampling) in m.v. portfolio optimization

The instability and high sensitivity of optimisation results can be augmented by adding another layer of quantitative methodology in the form of Monte Carlo Simulation. The name Monte Carlo alludes to ...
1answer
13 views

### How would I develop confidence bounds for a function of 3 random variables, 2 of which are correlated?

I am tasked with developing confidence intervals for the function x = 1 - |(a+b)/c| where a, b and c are random variables. a and b are normally distributed, but c is heavily skewed left. further ...
0answers
19 views

### Does convexity in the IV space means convexity in the price space?

Let's assume that we only look at OTM options to construct a Risk Neutral Density (RND). As the RND is the second derivative of the price of the option with respect to the strike, we would expect ...
1answer
17 views

### How to price a phoenix and snowball type autocallable options?

I'm currently studying the pricing of autocallable options, especially snowball (accumalated coupon) and phoenix (accumlated coupon, but the coupon may also be autocalled if the underlying price ...
0answers
22 views

### Relationship between correlations of long only and short only portfolio with long-short portfolio?

I am working on one quality and value factor, the correlation between a long-only or short only portfolio of these two factors is respectively 0.7 and 0.8, and the correlation between combined long-...
3answers
48 views

### CAPM - Expected vs. actual returns

I'm trying to calculate alpha in excess of CAPM and have seen a few slightly different calculations for CAPM. The primary difference I am seeing is that some equations use Expected market returns, ...
0answers
11 views

### Relation between low rate and credit risk

In the Handbook of Fixed Incomes Securities, there is this part: The lower federal funds rate prods banks to be less aggressive in issuing deposits, such as certificates of deposits (CDs). Their ...
0answers
27 views

### PV01 of Physically settled Swaptions contrat

Can you please help me figure out how to find PV01 Physically settled Swaptions contract 20Y30Y with fwd rate 0.01974 with fixed freq=2, using ACT/360 with 02/08/2019 -> 02/08/2039 and 02/08/2069 ...
0answers
30 views

### Why do coefficients flip after the including a lag in the optimisation? implied volatility/skewness/ivspreads

I am hoping some of you guys can help me out. I am applying the paramametric portfolio optimisation of Brandt, Michael W., Pedro Santa-Clara, and Rossen Valkanov. in which the weights on specific ...
0answers
22 views

### Serial Correlation in Rolling Change Linear Regression Models

1.) Lets say I have two time series GDP, BUSINV from (1948, 2019); Frequency of Data is Quarterly. 2.) Say I want to predict GDP i.e. GDP ~ BUSINV 3.) Since GDP is not stationary (i.e. level) and ...
3answers
467 views

### What is the appropriate benchmark for a Long/Short VIX futures strategy?

Trying to figure out the benchmark for a L/S Vix futures stragegy, doesn't seem like only long or short Vix futures would be appropriate, any ideas? Thx
1answer
33 views

### Settlement of currency options

wanted to understand the market action done to settle a call option. Let's say I entered into a export seagull for eurusd and on the date of expiry my sell call gets exercised. Assuming that my sell ...
1answer
36 views

### Hedging convexity for long-dated fixed cashflows

I'm wondering what are the different ways of hedging the convexity in fixed long-dated cashflows (maturity > last liquid point). Also, if you'd say receiver swaptions would be the way to go, could you ...
2answers
58 views

### Carry & roll - question regarding the repo transaction

Could someone please explain the carry and roll trade that a lot of traders are doing with negative euro debt? I read an example that they borrow in the repo market then buy a longer dated bond to ...
0answers
13 views

### affine function of random variable [migrated]

If $X$ is a random variable, then $F(X) = a + bX$ where $a,b$ are constants is an affine function. What is the technical/formal name of a function which is not affine, but for which the following ...
1answer
18 views

### Anywhere to find historical float shares (or restricted shares) of US stocks?

I'm trying to collect the historical stock float data, but can't find it nowhere. We can easily find historical quarterly shares outstanding data in sec edgar, and we know that floating stock = ...
2answers
46 views

### Stress testing fixed income Yield curve with Nelson Siegel

I am attempting to stress test the Zero coupon Yield curve using The Nelson Siegel model as described in the following papers : Generating Yield Curve Stress-Scenarios Representative Yield Curve ...
0answers
13 views

### Wald-Wolfowitz runs test on different time frames

I have developed an indicator that employs the Wald-Wolfowitz (W-W) runs test on log-returns, i.e., $r_t =\log(P_t)-\log(P_{t-1})$, for various time frames for intra-day futures. Log-returns are ...
0answers
31 views

### How to set parameters and datatable for Modeling in Python

I'm starting a quite complex and long financial modeling project, I'm looking for the best ways to set my datatables/parameters in the most efficient way instead for coding in block with everything ...
0answers
24 views

### Problems with Performance Attribution Analysis

I am using the typical Brinson Model formula, but it doesn´t work, I think that is explained because of the compound effect and rebalancing... when I look my portfolio's YTD return and multiply by the ...
2answers
67 views

### Do we need to assume underlying returns are normal in BSM model, given Central Limit Theorem?

I am trying to get a better understanding of Central Limit Theorem and how it can be used in life and in finance. From what I have read, the BSM model assumes the underlying asset's simple returns ...
0answers
43 views

### Supertrend indicator formula

Recently i am working on an indicator called "Supertrend", however i am a hard time to get the right value. The formula ...
1answer
47 views

### How can the BS riskless hedge break down when volatility changes, if a random walk can produce any price history?

Supposedly, a Black-Scholes riskless hedge will break down if the volatility is non-constant. However, a random walk with any sigma could produce any price history with some non-zero probability. If ...
0answers
17 views

### Discount drop calculation for a Treasury Bill

How is the discount drop calculated for a US treasury bill for a forward settle date?
1answer
50 views

### CDOs before the 2007 crisis

I read that before the financial crisis of 2007 the CDOs were so complex that investors could not analyze them. Were they just complex, or was there no public information about what they contained? ...
0answers
34 views

### Tangency portfolio with two additional constraints

I know that the formula for determining the weights of the Tangency portfolio is given as $w_{tan}$ = $\frac{\Sigma \mu}{\iota^{\prime}\Sigma\mu }$, but I was wondering how to derive the weights in ...
1answer
49 views

### How does buying a CDX and then taking a short CDS position generates alpha?

Can someone please explain to me how buying a CDX and then taking a short CDS position generates alpha? I am so confused.
1answer
50 views

### DCF Valuation Models

Does anyone know of any websites that have sample models or mind sharing their DCF models? Trying to get started modeling and can't seem to find many great resources. I know of Damodaran, but his ...
1answer
97 views

### How does the volatility skew/smile relate to hedging/trading vanilla contracts?

I know that obtaining and calibrating the smile is important in the hedging and trading of exotics since we use vanillas to hedge and price exotics. How is the smile important in the hedging and ...
1answer
41 views

### EONIA capitalisé jour tr eur: can't find index data! Do you know what kind of index is?

To get EONIA capitalisé jour tr eur index returns (monthly returns from 01/2007 until the most recent) is challenging. First i googled the index name searching for the ISIN or the index provider ...
0answers
40 views

### looking for a simple realistic parametric volatility model

Which parametric volatility is realistic to test quickly and qualitatively a model? I do not wish to fit market quotes but would like to have a non-trivial volatility with skew or smile to do some MC ...
1answer
41 views

### impact of bond futures conversion factor on calendar spread trading

i have a quick question about conversion factor and his implication in calendar bonds roll trading. I go short on a calendar roll (short front+long back) which has the same cheapest to deliver. The ...
0answers
37 views

### Stochastic volatility with Bayesian inference in Python

Do you know any package in python, for Bayesian stochastic volatility in python?
3answers
79 views

### Sum of relative weights in portfolio equal to 0

In the context of portfolio optimization, for now I encountered only cases where the sum of relative weights $h_n$ in each stock is equal to 1. However, I've seen that there are cases where the sum is ...
0answers
47 views

### Difference between Predicting stock returns and Forecasting stock Returns?

The data that is used are either Technical Indicators, Fundamentals Indicators or Macro Indicators which is time series in nature. Given, if we are estimating one-period ahead returns(t+1), is there a ...
0answers
21 views

### What NPV value to expect with X% success?

cross-posted from https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/3326309/what-value-to-expect-with-x-success I'm trying to intuit the following statements based on the plot below, but I'm stuck on the ...
0answers
39 views

### Solutions for Paul Wilmott Derivatives Book

I am looking for solutions manual for Derivatives, "the theory and practice of financial engineering". I'm not sure if the manual is published ever but I couldn't get it. I would be more than happy ...
2answers
63 views

### How does duplicate data affect backtesting?

Before developing a trading strategy, one should clean and preprocess his data set. It is very common that a data set contains huge number of duplicates. Question: How does duplicate data affect ...
1answer
62 views

### How does one calculate the duration of a cash flow

The question reads: A firm has liabilities as follows: £2,910 at time t = 0 and £7,501 at time t = 4 (time is measured in years). On the asset side the firm has two payments, each for £5,000, at time ...
1answer
86 views

### Question about volatility surfaces

As a learner, I'm curious to know the answer to 2 questions regarding volatility surfaces 1) It's stated that volatility surface should be flat accdording to Black-Scholes model. Why is that? Time (...
4answers
3k views

### Does banks' profitability really suffer under low interest rates

It is always said that European banks suffer, amongst other things, from the low interest rate environment governing the Eurozone. And that in a rising interest rate environment, banks' profitability ...
1answer
78 views

### What is the annualized realized volatility of simulated Brownian motion paths?

I saw this following question in an exam. Take a Brownian motion simulation with drift 5% and annualized volatility of 20% for a period of 1 year. Then the annualized realized volatility of the ...
0answers
31 views

### International Baccalaureate - Balance Sheet Format

I would like to transform Tesla's balance sheet (https://www.nasdaq.com/symbol/tsla/financials?query=balance-sheet) into the IB-balance sheet format (see below). In the current assets section, is it,...
0answers
12 views

### How to implement Time varying EWMA cross correlation in STATA?

I have read this question, I know about lambda, demeaned subindexes. But not able to implement in STATA?

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