For a university project I need the historical number of outstanding shares for all companies currently in the S&P 500
If the price of a stock follows a Geometric Brownian motion, then does stock return depends on past stock returns?
Should I use common equity or total equity for book value? (when replicating Lewellen's 2015 paper on a cross section of expected stock returns)
If there was a way to back out implied volatility (IV) from a stock, would it be the same as the IV backed out from an option on that same stock?
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