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12

You should consider an unsupervised learning algorithm such as K-nearest neighbor ('KNN'). KNN will measure the distance amongst the observations in your space. You can and probably should consider alternative distance functions (besides euclidean) particularly if you are clustering on features such as returns which have outliers. There are quite a few ...


11

^GSPC is a price index, not a total return index, so it does not include dividends. SPY is an ETF that holds the underlying stocks. When it receives a dividend it keeps it in a cash account (which of course affects the NAV and market value of SPY shares) until the end of the quarter. At that time (on the 3d friday of Mar Jun Sep or Dec) it will pay out the ...


10

Leverage: futures usually require much lower margin than their ETF counterparts. For example /ES (E-mini S&P 500 futures) requires about \$4K overnight maintenance margin per contract (may vary by brokerage) to control 50 times the S&P 500 index (currently valued at about \$108K). This is over 20:1 leverage. Furthermore you do NOT pay interest on ...


8

Basically the Total Return Index assumes reinvestments compared to "regular" indices. "A total return index is an index that measures the performance of a group of components by assuming that all cash distributions are reinvested, in addition to tracking the components' price movements.1 While it is common to refer to equity based indices, there ...


8

Put simply, VIX is a spot index (fair value to a variance swap on SPX of constant maturity) that you cannot own as a security. Market participants create futures for you to trade. Futures trade higher than the VIX -- if you long VIX futures, you lose when the futures contract converges to VIX. You therefore have a negative roll-down. VIX ETF doesn't avoid ...


6

In general, it depends on the particular ETF, and should be checked in the prospectus, but one standard way (e.g. SPY) is to do it on a daily basis based on NAV published after the close. E.g. NAV per share = X$, so the expenses taken out would be X*0.03/(100*252). Again usually ETF's have cash component (with aggregated dividends etc), so there's no problem ...


5

I would look to run a pre-optimization routine over the whole universe of 200+ ETFs. I would use this pre-optimization to reduce the universe to a cardinality that provides optimal diversification effects. You can do that by first looking at pair-wise correlations and then also run optimizations to reduce portfolio variance by utilizing the covariance ...


5

Quant Guy's answer is quite informative for your question already. Just to add few other things: instead of figuring out the choice of features by your own brain, you could also use machine learning techniques to help in extracting the 'features' for your specific purpose, e.g. risk modeling or returns forecasting or portfolio construction as mentioned by ...


5

Probably missing something here but if $X$ has $E(X) = \mu$ and $variance(X) = \sigma^2$ then $2X$ has $E(2X) = 2 \mu, variance(2X) = 4\sigma^2$. Thus the sharp ratio defined as $\frac{\mu}{\sigma}$ stays the same for the 2x leveraged and the regular index.


5

This is a very good question. It can be argued that risk parity is one example of a smart beta strategy. Yet it is important to understand that both are coming from two different directions: risk parity is basically a form of risk management (in the sense of risk-adjustment) because its basic approach lies in diversification - like the alternative methods ...


5

On more than a few occasions, I have attempted to extrapolate the current trend towards passive allocation to its logical conclusion: more passive allocation means more inefficiency. I am not aware of any research which directly measures the correlation between market efficiency and active versus passive allocation. In general, the level of market ...


5

try: library(PerformanceAnalytics) SharpeRatio.annualized(Returns, Rf = 0.05, scale = 252, geometric = TRUE)


5

No need to scrape the site. That should always be a last resort. The below will import the .csv file you are asking about and save it to a directory of your choice. If you don't want to specify a directory can eliminate dir and any references to it and the file will go straight to your working directory. I usually save data separately hence that option. ...


5

If you are looking for the official SEC filings then EDGAR is your best bet. QQQ is still listed under PowerShares, the old (and better IMHO) name for Invesco. POWERSHARES QQQ TRUST, SERIES 1 CIK#: 0001067839 This link should get you what you need; https://www.sec.gov/cgi-bin/browse-edgar?action=getcompany&CIK=0001067839&type=&dateb=&owner=...


5

Delta one trading desks provide synthetic exposure to their clients. OK, so what does that mean? Delta One desks give their clients exposure to a product (stock index, ETF, or even a single stock) without the client actually buying the underlying product. For example, a customer can take their money and buy the stocks in the SP500 index. Or, they can ...


4

Vanguard S&P 500 index fund tracks the index and not the total return because it pays dividends out to the owners of the fund... some investors reinvest the dividends, some investors spend their dividends, etc., so, because they cannot control the reinvestment and distribute the dividends, they benchmark against the S&P 500 index and not the total ...


4

I don't have much experience in the matter, but I've been doing some related literature research recently and I think these links can be helpful: A rather recent study from CME A (possible a bit biased) report by BlackRock A report by Lyxor (asset manager affialiated to Societe Generale)


4

There are plenty of sites you can get this information from. etfdb.com and etf.com are two of the bigger ones. See this for an example: http://etfdb.com/etfdb-category/europe-equities/ http://etfdb.com/tool/etf-stock-exposure-tool/


4

The fair price can be calculated by [Net Assets / Shares Outstanding]. In reality the ETF should trade at a slight premium to this calculation due to the convenience of having many assets bundled in one, thus reducing your brokerage expenses in the form of transaction fees to construct a similar portfolio. From this link: (https://advisors.vanguard.com/...


4

First, you might find this recent paper by Israeli, Lee and Sridharan (Review of Accounting Studies, forthcoming) interesting. This is the abstract: We examine whether an increase in ETF ownership is accompanied by a decline in pricing efficiency for the underlying component securities. Our tests show an increase in ETF ownership is associated with: (1) ...


4

The CBOE VIX index is an aggregated spot value calculated from options. The index itself cannot be traded. Volatility ETPs are usually designed to track an underlying index on VIX Futures that is tradeable. In the case of SVXY, it is stated in their prospectus that it tracks The S&P 500 VIX Short-Term Futures Index. Credit Suisse's XIV follows the exact ...


3

Firstly, Volume doesn't equal movement. The best thing is to look at what it represents. SHV is the iShares Short Treasury Bond ETF. This means it tracks short-term treasury bonds. Many forms of balanced portfolios require some portion of funds in bonds. This ETV is an easy vehicle to get fractional exposure to bonds. As far as "has not moved much" is ...


3

It depends on your ETF. Some have synthetic exposure to the index sold by a sponsor (ie someone give them exactly the performance of the index) but this has a cost (a constant / deterministic drag on the NAV of your ETF which doesn't appear in your tracking error). Futures on the other hand have basis, are sensitive to changes in implied dividends and ...


3

The futures price goes to the spot price as time to maturity declines, not vice-versa. The difference is referred to as basis. That's not really what roll yield is about though. The roll yield aspect is that as the contracts the ETF holds are expiring, they are close to the spot price. However, the next futures contract's price is higher than the price of ...


3

Here couple ETFs that may satisfy what you are looking for: http://www.quant-shares.com/etf-list/ http://www.etc.db.com/GBR/ENG/Institutional/Downloads/ISIN/Factsheets/GB00B4N0QN94 http://guggenheiminvestments.com/products/etf/wmcr http://etfdb.com/type/investment-style/high-beta/ Those include ETFs with a momentum approach, mean-reversion approach, micro ...


3

It depends a lot on the structure of the ETF, it could be : * In the "terms and conditions" of the (highly possible) total return swap of the fund * Portfolio insurance * Option combination (or cap & floor) I think it's in the swap details, already saw that a few times.


3

When I select assets for a portfolio given an universe, I tend to pick ones that span the beta spectrum, given your selected benchmark. I find that if your portfolio of assets have varying volatility or correlation, you can achieve better diversification. I didn't come up with the idea but it comes from a rotational system's framework from the link below: ...


3

The price of VXX ETF should not be the price of the mentioned basket of VIX futures. It is the change in price of VXX (the return) what should be equivalent to the change of price of the futures basket with 1 month average maturity. That is because the VXX ETF works as an open end fund, so its price is just the price of a share of that fund, which has an ...


3

Quite a good article can be found here: http://seekingalpha.com/article/3140956-investing-in-leveraged-etfs-theory-and-practice Just selling a pair of leveraged ETFs to harvest the "volatility decay" is comparable to a short straddle... highly skewed and therefore quite dangerous (from the article): There are no free lunches in the market. The apparent ...


3

It is a complex question. The first answer should be investors who bought these ETFs would otherwise have invested on equities (say we talk on Equity ETFs) a buy and hold way. Seen like this ETFs concentrate assets under management (AuM) on stocks being parts of indices or "factors". On the paper these stocks should be chosen to be liquid enough to support ...


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