4

I think you are misinterpreting the data. Right now, looking at Bloomberg webpage, the Market Cap of Pearson is 11.142,56(M). This figure has been obtained looking at the heading Market Cap (M GBP). Alternative, if you go through the Number of Shares x Share Price route, using the same Bloomberg webpage, you obtain: Shares Outstanding (M) x Current Share ...


3

A 409A and the price someone is willing to pay for a private company are not the same. A 409A for an early-stage business is usually performed immediately after a financing round. This type of valuation is just a snapshot at that moment, which heavily discounts that an early-stage company can remain a going concern. An investor looking to participate in a ...


3

Do not use the capitalizations of the ETFs, they hold a small and variable proportion of the securities outstanding. Instead base your weights on the papers by Swinkels et al. which have tried to estimate the actual amounts invested by all investors (not just ETFs!) in various assets. Their latest paper is Historical Returns of the Market Portfolio, 2019 ...


2

You mean aside from the fact that stock price can fluctuate wildly? There's no 'why', per se. P/B (nor P/E, P/S, P/CF or any valuation metric) isn't a panacea for identifying undervalued companies. It's a proxy of sorts. 1 is obviously a kind of floor, but imperfect (where break-up value = current market price), though it's at times eclipsed. During ...


2

Tiingo.com has fundamental data available through an API you can access using Python. I'm not sure if you have to pay for it or if it's included with a free account. Either way, the outstanding shares are on the balance sheet within the fundamental data you can get through their REST API. YCharts has this data on a monthly basis too. See example here. ...


2

There is no limit, but you would need a lot of large non-residents shareholders to achieve that. This is arguably the case in Hong Kong, where the total market cap is advertised at 4.5 trillion dollars. I cannot find a source for the total wealth of Hong Kong, but given that ultra high net worth individuals have 1.2 trillion in assets, and assuming they own ...


2

We first need to define the risk-free asset. One may assume that for a US investor, the riskfree asset is the USD, whereas, for a Japanese investor, it is JPY. This is important because the perceived volatility of USD to a Japanese will cause him to require a higher return on a USD asset than on a JPY asset, thereby causing some home bias. While the market ...


2

I will answer your question with another question. Being that there are class B stocks that are not publicly traded and have 10x the voting power how do we calculate those stocks being that that they are not publicly traded? The way we deal with this is not to take voting power into consideration when valuating the market cap. So when looking at class A ...


1

P/B is a ratio so it has a numerator and a denominator. P is easy to look up, it is the market capitalization. The problem is that B is the one that's hard to ascertain. Even if you believe the auditors, you should probably make adjustments, for example, the net cash-on-hand. To make things worse, B is in the denominator so potentially, small changes in the ...


1

If you are looking for a quick and easy solution, I have found a combination of Google Sheets + Yahoo Finance URLs to be relatively easy to implement. Here's an example you could try yourself. Let's say you have a stock ticker, "AAPL" in cell A1. =INDEX(IMPORTHTML( CONCATENATE("https://finance.yahoo.com/quote/", A2,"?p=",A2,"&.tsrc=fin-srch") ,"table"...


1

Market cap is just the stock price times outstanding shares. The number of outstanding shares is decided by the issuer so the remaining question is how do you value a private company's stock price. There's 3 general classes of methods: Book-based (e.g. discounted cash flow, multiple of LTM revenue) Relative comps Private market demand The first approach ...


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