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Let $p\in(0,1)$. The corresponding quantile function of $X\sim N(\mu,\sigma^2)$ is given by $$F_X^{-1}(p)=\mu+\sigma\Phi^{-1}(p)=\mu+\sqrt{2}\sigma\mathrm{erf}^{-1}(2p-1),$$ where $\Phi^{-1}$ is the inverse of the cumulative distribution function of a standard normally distributed random variable and $\mathrm{erf}^{-1}$ is the inverted error function. Thus, ...


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This is known as the Simpson's Paradox in Statistics, which occurs when groups of data show one particular trend, but this trend is reversed when the groups are combined together. Check the wikipedia page for some examples.


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