# Tag Info

Accepted

### Problems with local volatility models (vs stochastic volatility models)

1. What does it mean by the vol surface is the current view of vol? The local volatility model is calibrated to vanillas prices (and equivalently their implied volatilities), which reflect the market'...
• 2,230
Accepted

### Local vol, stochastic vol, implied vol

Along with Gatheral's book, I'd recommend reading Lorenzo Bergomi's "Stochastic Volatility Modelling". The first 2 chapters are available for download on his website. That being said, let me try to ...
• 14.7k
Accepted

### SSR definition in Bergomi in relation to sticky strike and sticky delta

Some Notations It's easy to get lost so let's introduce some notations and let $$\sigma : (t, S, K, \tau) \to \sigma(K,\tau; S, t)$$ denote the implied volatility smile prevailing at time $t$ ...
• 14.7k
Accepted

### Bergomi: Skew arbitrage

Great question. Let me try to provide some insights and thoughts regarding the points and questions you raised. It may not be a full answer but hopefully it will help connecting the contents in the ...
• 863

### Mixed local-stochastic volatility model in Quantlib

Stochastic-Local Vol (SLV) is an attempt to mix the strengths and weaknesses of both Stochastic Vol and Local Vol models. Below, I'll quickly summarise each model and their strengths and weaknesses, ...
• 3,056
Accepted

### Solve the following SDE: $\mathrm{d}X_t = a(b-X_t) \,\mathrm{d}t + c X_t \, \mathrm{d}W_t$

Let \begin{align*} Y_t = e^{(a+\frac{c^2}{2})t-cW_t}. \end{align*} Then \begin{align*} dY_t = Y_t\left[\big(a+c^2\big)dt -c dW_t \right]. \end{align*} Moreover, \begin{align*} d(X_tY_t) &= Y_t ...
• 21.2k
Accepted

### For pricing, what types of Exotic Options are suitable using Local Volatility Model or a Stochastic Volatility Model?

Whenever you use any model to price anything, all you need to do is make sure you model the underlying dynamics that the product you're pricing actually depends on. Any product will be dependent on ...
• 2,591
Accepted

### Different volatility surface ( Local vol, Stochastic vol etc.)

I'll answer both of your questions in one go: Your ideas are correct. If the Black-Scholes model was true, the implied volatility surface would be flat but it is not in real life. Thus, the geometric ...
• 16.2k
Accepted

### Modeling Call Price w.r.t. Strike w Models that Capture Vol Smile

The way that I understand your question is that you are looking to fit the market prices of European plain vanilla options of a single maturity and then back out the corresponding implied probability ...
• 6,064

### Book/ Articles recommendation for Volatility models

I have also currently started to learn about the subject. This is some of the material I have encountered: Many people recommend the book "The Volatility Surface: A Practitioner's Guide" by ...
Accepted

• 14.7k
Accepted

### SABR Calibration: Normal vs Log-Normal Market Data

I think you did something wrong in translating the input to numerics. As pointed out by dm63 normal vols are quoted in basis points. Using equation A.67a) from the Hagan paper you linked we see (...
• 1,738

### SABR beta range

The SABR process is a strict martingale for all values of beta < 1 (in particular, negative betas are fine). If beta = 1, the process is a strict martingale if and only if rho < 0. Under all ...
• 126
Accepted

### Strike / delta relationship for FX options

In FX world, the ATM strike is the delta-neutral strike, that is, the absolute delta values of a call and the corresponding put are the same. Moreover, the delta can be premium adjusted or not ...
• 21.2k
Accepted

### Mixture models of Stochastic Volatility and Local Volatility

Stochastic local volatility model means $dS_t/S_t=...dt+\sigma_t L(S_t,t)dW_t$ with $\sigma_t$ the stochastic part (modeled for instance as in the Heston model, or any other dynamics deemed ...
• 5,692
Accepted

### Interpretation and intuition behind the Put-Call symmetry under the Heston Model

This is a consequence of transforming a Put on $S_T$ with strike $K$ into a Call on $(K S_0)/S_T$ with strike $S_0$ under the stock measure. The new set of parameters $r_p$, $q_p$, $\kappa_p$, ... etc ...
• 5,692

### What's the point of stochastic volatiliy models if you can use local volatility?

Well, what you find is that the introduction of stochastic vol changes the delta of your options. So what does this mean? If the new delta reduces the variance of your hedged portfolio versus the ...
• 17.5k
Accepted

### Introductory material for getting started with local and stochastic volatility modelling

If you are looking for a short introduction into various concepts used in volatility modeling without too much mathematical derivations (although written by a mathematician), I would recommend 'Smile ...
• 428
Accepted

### volatility input for black scholes formula

The best authority I have seen on this stuff is Natenberg: Option Volatility and Pricing. I can't do much better than check my copy. He says: "Note that there are a variety of ways to calculate ...
• 1,156
Accepted

### The positivity of the market price of risk

No, it can be negative. The price of risk is what you agree to receive on average in exchange for positive returns when the risk measure is high, and determined by the covariance of the risk measure ...
• 932
Accepted

### Intuition for the Effect of Vol of Vol in Heston Model on Volatility Surface

Maybe it would help you to think of it the following way. The strike $\sigma^2(T)$ of a fresh-start variance swap of maturity $T$ in the Heston model only depends on parameters $(v_0,\theta,\kappa)$, ...
• 14.7k

### How many options would be required to dynamically replicate the VIX nowadays?

Gonzalez-Perez (2015) Model-free volatility indexes in the financial literature: A review makes some remarks on this topic in section 2.2. Andersen, Bondarenko & Gonzalez-Perez (2013) identify a ...