# Tag Info

10

A swaption in which the underlying swap starts at a date materially after the expiration date is called a midcurve swaption. The implied volatilities of these can not be obtained from the regular swaption surface. Market makers calculate implied volatilities for midcurves in s number of ways. One popular method is to compute the volatility of the forward ...

9

Why does USD based security valuation have to give a thing about what London Banks think? Your question is based on false premises: the USD Libor is not determined by polling London based banks as you seem to believe, but banks on the London money market. The difference is important, as there are—of course—banks which are not based in London and active on ...

8

We actually managed to come up with the answer to this question ourselves but wanted to share the answer since it might be relevant to others as well. The calculation depends on what method is used to calculate the cost. There is the FIFO, LIFO and the average cost method, see: http://www.accounting-basics-for-students.com/fifo-method.html If FIFO or LIFO ...

7

You are essentially dealing with two options: $EU\,{Warrant}(S_t) = BlackScholesCall(S_t)+CompoundCall(S_t)$ The Black-Scholes formula is known, and Compound Option pricing has various approaches in research which you may find.

7

Trading bond futures calendar spread is actually a very involved exercise, with many moving parts. But first things first, recall that bond futures price is approximately: $$F = \text{spot price} - \text{carry} - \text{delivery option value (DOV)} \pm \text{rich/cheap}.$$ So calendar spreads represent the differences in spot prices, in carries, in delivery ...

7

If you imagine you have two risk-less assets that have a unit payoff at maturity $V_1(T) = V_2(T) = 1$ but their present value is not equal, e.g. $V_1(t) < V_2(t)$. You buy the cheaper, sell the more expensive, have a strictly positive cash-flow today and at maturity the cash-flows cancel out with certainty. This is a free lunch arbitrage. The same ...

6

In #2, you can use FX forwards to convert your JPY cashflows to USD but it is more common in practice to use a cross-currency swap for this purpose. Indeed, the advantage of the latter is that it allows you to keep the nominal of your synthetic USD bond constant because the final exchange in the swap is done at FX spot (not forward), and the difference is ...

6

To discuss Funding Valuation Adjustments (FVA) it is first necessary to describe a situation in which such an adjustment would be needed. In here we will take as an example collateral mismatches, which is a common case. For a conceptual treatment of FVA and collateral mismatches refer to Ruiz (2013). We borrow the modified Black-Scholes framework of ...

5

The importance here is that it actually does not matter in what time zone or market the libor rates are set. Key is that it is supposed (!!!) to be a gauge at what rate contributing banks could borrow funds at in the inter-bank market. Like you can go to any African country and borrow or lend US dollar, so can any Japanese, European, or American bank borrow ...

5

You will find elaborate answers to your question in this excellent new book: Quantitative Value: A Practitioner’s Guide to Automating Intelligent Investment and Eliminating Behavioral Errors by Gray & Carlisle You can find a good summary over at CXO Advisory Group: A Few Notes on Quantitative Value

5

IPO valuation is super sophisticated. There is usually a Managing Underwriter, who has a team of analysts/asset pricers/investment bankers/lawyers/etc. with complicated terms and they go and value a company. They usually take control, assess and decide what share price is "suitable" for the company to go public. This team usually takes 7% commission and they ...

4

Using Andy Flury answer and bit polishing it gives following Python class for PnL calculator: class PnLCalculator: def __init__(self): self.quantity = 0 self.cost = 0.0 self.market_value = 0.0 self.r_pnl = 0.0 self.average_price = 0.0 def fill(self, n_pos, exec_price): pos_change = n_pos - self....

4

Just figured it out with the help from someone else... The market cap is in Singapore dollar because it's traded on Singapore exchange, but their income statement is in Thai Baht... That's why :)

4

Based on an my updated understanding of your problem you have a portfolio consisting of $N$ illiquid assets. Valuations are not real time and usually lagged, by say, upto 3 months (or slightly longer), but at least valuations correspond to a consistent timestamp (or otherwise you interpolate a consistent timestamp). You want to construct a predictive model ...

4

Yardeni has lots of great valuation information. Below is a link to the forward P/E ratio by country, as requested. The update date is March 10, and the frequency is weekly, so this is probably as timely as one would ever need it to be if one is doing fundamental investing. https://www.yardeni.com/pub/mscipe.pdf

3

As long as your market is complete and $\tau$ is measurable w.r.t. the filtration generated by the market the continuous cash flow paid until $\tau$ is a hedgeable contingent claim and you have to work under the risk neutral measure.

3

Any time that a contract is cancellable by either party, it will be cancelled. That's because it is always to one party's advantage to cancel rather than carry on. The exception is that the contract is worth exactly zero, which has effectively zero probability. Therefore, the value of the contract is whatever will get paid out on cancellation. I.e. The ...

3

Basically it boils down to this: You either use a descriptive or a prescriptive (normative) model, i.e. you either think that the market is always right or you think that you alone know how to determine the "true" price of an option. The original idea of BS was to build a prescriptive model but most modern models try to take the market prices as given and ...

3

Bank earnings specifically, but yes. http://www.macrotrends.net/1324/s-p-500-earnings-history

3

There are papers out there applying this approach. Try looking up Leland, Leland&Toft (1994 and 1996) for modelling corporate liabilities, resulting in a series of interesting results. Also, it might be worth looking into a structural credit risk modelling approach (in contrast to a reduced form approach (see Lando (2001 or 2004) for more)). There are ...

3

A dollar to be received with certainty (for example, you have purchased a bill from the US government) at time $t$ will be valued at $e^{-rt}$. If you are uncertain about whether you will receive the dollar or not, you should take this into account. A simple model is that the institution who is supposed to pay you will default with probability $p$, in which ...

3

I performed spectral analysis on the stock market for disaggregated returns. If $\mu$ is the center of location and anything away from $\mu$ is an "error", then the stock market is in equilibrium once every 20-21 years as an aggregate whole. But, like a musical instrument, the periods of the individual firms could be relatively small. Still, that would ...

3

If you already have the zero rates, you can construct the zero curve using the set of maturities (dates) and zero rates values, in addition to a day count convention in this way: import QuantLib as ql ql.Settings.instance().evaluationDate = ql.Date(26, 7, 2018) dates = [ql.Date(26, 7, 2019), ql.Date(26, 7, 2020), ql.Date(26, 7, 2030)] zero_rates = [0.03, 0....

3

Sums the market value times the par value for each bond Could you clarify that formula ? From what you wrote it seems to be just a way to dollarize the bond price (market value = 97%, par value = 200 000 USD, bond value(market price) = 194 000 USD) Par value weighted average is a very poor metric of measuring (short term) portfolio risk. It is however ...

3

@Gordon has already given the answer but here is a little more notes to it... At time time $T_2$ the holder receives $X=(S_{T_1}-K)^+$. According to Risk Neutral Valuation the value at time $t$ $(t<T_1<T_2)$ is $$V_t = e^{-r(T_2-t)}E_t[(S_{T_1}-K)^+] = \\ e^{-r(T_2-t+T_1-T_1)}E_t[(S_{T_1}-K)^+]=\\ e^{-r(T_2-T_1)}e^{-r(T_1-t)}E_t[(S_{T_1}-K)^+]$$ $e^... 3 A simple trick is being used to come up with the right discount factors. Since$D_T=\frac{1}{1+r_1}\frac{1}{1+r_2}\frac{1}{1+r_3}\cdots\frac{1}{1+r_T}$and$D_S=\frac{1}{1+r_1}\frac{1}{1+r_2}$we can form the desired discount factor from two days hence to date$T$as follows$\frac{D_T}{D_S}=\frac{1}{1+r_3}\cdots\frac{1}{1+r_T}$(which we might call$D_{...

3

If we talk about tech stocks in general, a majority of their value is tied up in more distant cash flows / terminal value in a standard DCF analysis. So if interest rates go up, the more distant cash flows are impacted more due to the e^(-rt) discounting factor. The reason tech stocks are seen as 'expensive' is because the P/E ratio for example is measured ...

2

This is pretty much exactly the problem description for a standard over-the-counter FX option pricing tool from 10-20 years ago. (For more modern contexts, the data would almost surely contain also 10 delta RR and BF, and perhaps more points as well.) The best solution is, don't build this yourself, but instead use a prexisting tool. FX conventions are ...

2

We can value equity as a call option on the value of the firm, where exercising the option requires that the firm be liquidated and the face value of the debt (which corresponds to the exercise price) paid off. The parameters of equity as a call option are as follows: Value of the underlying asset = S = Value of the firm = 100 Exercise price/Strike price ...

2

This is actually no different from pricing a "standard" swap. The par swap rate is the "c" solved from $$\sum_{i=1}^n c \cdot \delta_i \cdot d(t_i) = \sum_{j=1}^N \Delta_j \cdot (l_j + x) \cdot d(t_j).$$ The left hand side is the present value of the fixed payments, where $n$ is the number of fixed leg payments, $\delta_i$ is the day count fraction for ...

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